Tackle water scarcity with rainwater harvesting

Water is a simple liquid that is of great importance for human life and sustenance. Water is a very large part of our lives.  In fact, 57% to 75% of our body is made out of the liquid. Water is very important for everyone living in this world, and to imagine life without water is impossible. There are about 1.4 billion people who don’t have access to clean drinking water, in the world of 6.8 billion people, 20.59% don’t have clean drinking water.  Obviously, water is a huge part of our daily lives and without it, you cannot live. Our daily activities are so much dependent on water that we cannot even live without water for a single day. We use water for many purposes such as drinking, washing, bathing, cleaning and agricultural purposes. Water is essential for life and it is very important to save water.

It is simply impossible to imagine human life without water, if there are no ample sources of water left then it would be a matter of great concern. Without water the will be no harvesting, no drinking water, no washing, cleaning and cooking as well. Hence it is very important to use our present water sources judiciously and try to save as much water as possible. It is very important to realize water conservation benefits and also to implement those in our day to day life. Water conservation encompasses the policies, strategies and activities to manage fresh water as a sustainable resource, and efforts to protect the water environment while maintaining a balance between current and future human demand. Population, household size and growth and affluence all affect how much water is used. Factors such as climate change will increase pressures on natural water resources, especially in manufacturing and agricultural irrigation. It is very important to realize the need for water conservation in the community as well as personal level.

Over the past few years a rapid growth in populations, modernization, growing industrialization, and expanding agriculture has pushed up the demand for water in the urban as well as rural areas. Human demands are increasing day by day but the natural resources are in a limited quantity. Efforts have been made to collect water by building dams and reservoirs, practising rainwater harvesting, digging wells; some countries have also tried to recycle and desalinate salty water to make it fit for drinking or washing. Water conservation has become a major need of the hour. The idea of groundwater recharging by harvesting rainwater is gaining importance in many parts of the world and has been practised successfully in many parts of the world.

Needs and Importance of Water Conservation

Water is an essential part of human life and plays a major role in human sustenance. We use water for drinking purpose, cooking, washing, for producing electricity, for farming, for industrial purpose and many other purposes that support the human lifestyle. Earth is about 70% water, but there is only a small amount of groundwater and rainwater source that is fit for drinking and cooking purpose. Ninety – seven per cent of all the water on the earth is salt water which is not suitable for drinking. Only three per cent of all the water is fresh water, and only one per cent is available for drinking water. The other two per cent is locked in ice caps and glaciers. About 70% of the water source that is from the sea and oceans the major part contains saline water that is the salt level of this water is so high that it cannot be used for drinking purpose and purification process for this water is really high. Our water supply is finite, which means that we do not have an endless supply.

We only have the water that we have now. The adult human uses on average about 100 gallons of water a day which may seem to be a small figure but with the rising population and depleting water sources there is a fear that one day there will not be enough water sources available to meet even drinking demands. Seawater that is highly salty as a result is not fit for human consumption and not even for industrial purpose or for producing electricity. Since this water contains a high amount of salts, therefore, using this water in industries and for producing electricity leads to salt deposition on the machinery and this at times can get really dangerous and lead to some major industrial disasters. Hence sea water is of no major use for humans.

The demand of fresh water is every growing with the exponential growth of world population. Surface and groundwater resources are being utilized faster than they can be recharged. Rooftop rainwater harvesting is an old practice that is being adopted by many nations as a viable decentralized water source. Individual rainwater harvesting filters are one of the many tools to meeting the growing fresh water demand.

Rooftop rainwater filters at local habitats are the best options to bring security of water for individual. We are committed to make rain water harvesting simple, scientific and sensible for common man. Our rainwater filters save each drop of rainwater falling on roof, filters out physical impurities and diverts clean pure and soft water to storage tank for later usage or to existing bore well for recharge.  Storage of rainwater in tank gives freedom from water crisis, results in saving of electricity cost.

Diversion of filtered, soft, pure rainwater from rooftop rainwater filter in existing bore well is sensible approach to conserve ground water. This is popularly known as bore well recharge. Bore well recharge results in raising water level in bore well, improvement in TDS and Hardness due to the effect of dilution.  Rainwater recharge prevents drying of bore well.

Rooftop rainwater filters makes the job of saving fresh water extremely easy and free from human intervention.  We are working hard to ensure that rainwater filter fulfils the objective without cost of electricity, without civil work and without headache of maintenance. Our rainwater filters are simple, scientific, smart, scalable and sensible for a common man. On an average one rainwater filter saves about a lakh litre of water from 1000 mm rain fall on a 1200 sq. ft of roof area.  Saving of such a huge volume of rainwater results in prevention of water logging on our streets and roads.

Let’s address twin problem of fresh water crisis and water logging by easy, economical and effective rainwater filters for common man. Such movement will only transform India from Water Stress to Water Positive Nation.

Rainwater harvesting is the storing of rainwater during the monsoon season for the purpose of using it during periods of water scarcity. Generally speaking, it is a process used for collecting and storing rainwater for human use. Rainwater harvesting is best described as the technique by which rain water is accumulated and stored with the intention of reusing it during the dry season or when there is a drought. With rapid climatic changes, increase in global temperature and population growth, there is a scarcity of potable water in many countries across the world. The gradual falling of water levels, are a cause of serious concern not only because it leads to shortage of usable water but also because in coastal areas it causes imbalance in salinity of the area.

Rapid industrialization and disposing chemical waste into water-bodies leads to pollution of rivers, lake and water-bodies. This is a global problem and needs a speedy solution. The supply of fresh water in this planet cannot be increased. So an alternative method must be sought for. One such method is harvesting rainwater. Rainwater harvesting is an easy and economical way to deal with this crisis. As men are becoming environment responsible, rain water harvesting is gaining popularity leading to eco-conservation and constructive use of natural resource. Falling water tables are widespread and most people in urban areas are dependent on bottled water which is neither cost-effective nor dependable. The possibility of pollution cannot be completely ruled out. The question of water security is at present a major issue in many parts of the world. One way to deal with this crisis is to adopt rainwater harvesting.

As we discussed earlier that water resources are finite and there is only 3% of freshwater sources, with all the people on Earth relying on such a small percentage of all the water on Earth, it only makes sense that we must preserve and conserve our water for our own survival otherwise a day will come when all the water sources will be extinguished. Besides conserving water it is also important that we must not pollute our water sources because it is the only water we will ever have. There are a lot of people who do not realize the importance of water, and they are continually wasting and polluting it. Only about ten per cent of wastewater is disposed of properly.

It is a high time that we must start saving water today so that it will be available to us in the future. We need to think of future generations, if we go on wasting our water resources recklessly then it is obvious that in future we will not have a sufficient supply of water unless we become more concerned with how we use our water today. There are many things that we can do to help preserve water. These are not things that are hard. All it takes is a little bit of extra effort, and soon it will be second nature. Save the water, that’s all we can do.

Major Uses of Water

We all enjoy many benefits of fresh water and use it for a majority of purpose like making electricity, cleaning, cooking, irrigating, etc. major uses of water are:

  • We use water for the daily household purpose like drinking, cleaning, washing and cooking etc.
  • Water is majorly used for agricultural activities.
  • Most widely used method of producing electricity requires water as a major source.
  • Water is used for many industrial purposes.
  • Commercial applications

 Water Conservation

It is often a misconception that water conservation is the job of government departments and environmental analysts which is not true, in fact water conservation is not a job that is just for these technician, soil scientist, hydrologist, forester, wildlife manager, plant scientist, city planner, park manager, farmer, rancher, or mine owner alone but involves a collective effort at community as well as personal level by every household. It is a job for the everyday person who just likes to have access to the life-sustaining resource of water. It is very important that we must all recognize that water conservation is our personal responsibility and not just leave it up to other people. It has been observed that a lot of times we tend to think that my small effort would be of no use, but if we all start thinking the same way then everyone will become ignorant and there will be an effort in this field. A collection of small effort by many people makes a lot of difference.

We all enjoy benefits of water in many ways, so it becomes our moral duty to care about our water resource and take necessary steps towards conserving our water resources. There is no need of doing something big; instead, some small practices can bear some big results. We need to ensure that we do not waste our water resources and are really vigilant in case there are any running taps.

We must learn to save water now for the future. The quality of our water is very important. We have the same amount of water now as there was when the earth was created and it is very important to realize that this is the water we have, and we must preserve its quality. Each and every effort towards water conservation counts. Water is the foundation of food and life and it would not be wrong to say that next to air, water is the most precious resource for human life and it is impossible to live without water. Saving water helps to preserve our environment. Saving water now means having water available in the future for recreational purposes, too. Conserving the water minimizes the effects of water shortages and helps us to build a better defence against future drought years. If we save water now, we are helping to ensure a water supply adequate for future generations.

Water conservation programs are typically initiated at the local level or community level, by either municipal water utilities or regional governments. Common strategies for water conservation include public outreach campaigns, tiered water rates by charging progressively higher prices as water use increases, or restrictions on outdoor water use such as lawn watering and car washing during the summer season. It is important to realize benefits and also to practice water conservation techniques in our routine life.

Reasons to Conserve Water

Below are some of the main reasons it is important to conserve water.

  • It minimizes the effects of drought and water shortages. Even though our need for fresh water sources is always increasing because of population and industry growth, the supply we have stays constant. Even though water eventually returns to Earth through the water cycle, it’s not always returned to the same spot, or in the same quantity and quality. By reducing the amount of water we use, we can better protect against future drought years.
  • It guards against rising costs and political conflict. Failing to conserve water can eventually lead to a lack of an adequate water supply, which can have drastic consequences. These include rising costs, reduced food supplies, health hazards, and political conflict.
  • It helps to preserve our environment. Reducing our water usages reduces the energy required to process and deliver it to homes, businesses, farms, and communities, which, in turn, helps to reduce pollution and conserve fuel resources.
  • It makes water available for recreational purposes. It’s not just swimming pools, spas, and golf courses that we have to think about. Much of our freshwater resources are also used for beautifying our surroundings—watering lawns, trees, flowers, and vegetable gardens, as well as washing cars and filling public fountains at parks. Failing to conserve water now can mean losing out on such uses later on.
  • It builds safe and beautiful communities: Fire-fighters, hospitals, gas stations, street cleaners, health clubs, gyms, and restaurants all require large amounts of water to provide services to the community. Reducing our usage of water now means that these services can continue to be provided.

Water conservation requires forethought and effort, but every little bit helps. Don’t think that what you do does not matter. We can all make changes in our lifestyles to reduce our water usage. The trick is making water conservation a way of life—not just something we think about once in a while.

Methods of Conserving Water

The most important step in the direction of finding solutions to issues of water and environmental conservation is to change people’s attitudes towards the fact and also changing habits which include each one of us to put in some sincere efforts. Conserve water because it is the right time to do so. We can follow some of the simple things that have been listed below and contribute to water conservation.

  • Every drop of water counts, so make sure you are not wasting clean drinking water and you are not leaving any running tap.
  • Remember to use only the amount you actually need and not wasting the water unnecessarily.
  • It has been found beneficial to form a group of water-conscious people at school, college or society level and encourage your friends and neighbours to be part of this group. Promote water conservation in community newsletters and on bulletin boards. Encourage your friends, neighbours and co-workers to also contribute.
  • Plant more and more trees to increase transpiration.
  • Encourage rainwater harvesting at the community level as well as municipal level.
  • Rainwater threw increasing ground water level.
  • Rainwater threw recharge bore well.
  • Make sure that your home is leak-free and there are no leaking taps or tanks storing water. Many homes have leaking pipes that go unnoticed. Call a plumber as soon as you notice any leakage.
  • Rainwater store in tank for drinking and cooking.
  • Do not leave the tap running while you are brushing your teeth or soaping your face.
  • When washing the car, use water from a bucket and not a hosepipe which helps to reduce about 50% of the water used for washing your car.
  • While watering your lawns do not waste water and use only the amount that is required.
  • Do not throw away water that has been used for washing vegetables and use it to water plants or to clean the floors, etc.

Some other technical methods may include rainwater harvesting at the major level which has following advantages:

  • Increases water availability
  • Checks the declining water table
  • Is environmentally friendly
  • Improves the quality of groundwater through the dilution of fluoride, nitrate, and salinity
  • Prevents soil erosion and flooding especially in urban areas
  • Gives fresh water free lifetime
  • Maintains Ecological balance
  • Raises Ground water level
  • Augments the freshwater storage
  • Arrests Saline water intrusion in Fresh water
  • Improves ground water quality phenomenally
  • Gives Food security through sustainable
  • Minimizes water pollutions
  • Reduces health risks and hazards
  • Averts disasters
  • Brings down Water Footprint
  • Zero hardness; avoids treatment and wastage
  • Helps grow green cover
  • Balances entire Eco System and life cycle
  • Reduces Soil Erosion
  • Recharged rainwater increases productivity of aquifer
  • Rejuvenates other sources of water
  • Dilutes impurities from ground
  • Frees rural households from physical work to collect water daily

Neerain is proud to republish this article for spreading awareness about situation of water, for our stakeholders. Credit whatsoever goes to the Author.

Water, accessed 21 dec 2022.

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